The Mayak Satellite – Brightest “Star” In The Night Sky

Mayak is a Russian cubesat developed by a group of young scientists named “Your sector of space” with support of the Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MSUME). Mayak is intended to become the brightest orbital object in the night sky by deploying an optical reflector.

In orbit, the 3U CubeSat will deploy four triangular reflectors, 4 m2 each, which form a tetrahedral shape. The reflectors are made from metallized membrane with reflection coefficient of 95%. The reflector will provide a -10 optical magnitude at the beginning of the flight to allow for easy tracking. Mayak will be put into a tumbling motion over all axes, with at least 1 revolution per second.

The satellite mission has three objectives:

  • To demonstrate that space has become closer, and now it’s possible for a group of friends and like-minded people to launch a real satellite.
  • To perform real-life tests of an aerodynamic braking system that can be used to de-orbit space debris in the future safely and without a need for a booster.
  • To collect new data about atmospheric density at high altitudes and use it as a basis for cross-checks of calulations of apparent magnitude of space objects and satellites.
  • Source: Gunter’s Space Page

Voyager 2: New Signals From Distant Probe. Has Aliens Answered?

Voyager 2

Has Voyager 2 spacecraft been hijacked by aliens? Something strange is happening. With a golden record on board, it left the Earth 33 years ago. NASA installed the 12-inch disk containing music and greetings in 55 languages in case intelligent extraterrestrial life ever found it.

But now the Voyager 2 spacecraft is sending back what sounds like an answer: Signals in an unknown data format!

The best scientific minds have so far not been able to decipher the strange information – is it a secret message?

Flashback:

1977: NASA fired the unmanned probe, weighing 722kg/1600 lbs, into space. It contains instruments, transmitters and the golden record on which are stored people’s voices, nature noises (such as waves and birds) and 90 minutes of music, including Mozart and Beethoven.

It has flown past Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune – and is now heading off into infinity. Its signal – which takes 13 hours to reach the Earth – has not been broken off.

2010: The signal changed for the first time on April 22. A technical error from the distant transmitter? No scientific data has been sent back since.
Voyager project scientist Ed Stone said the most likely cause of the hiccup is a bit flip, where parts of a stream of data are improperly formatted.

There are “probably one or two bits which have been flipped from a 0 to 1 or 1 to 0, and that affects only the science mode data,” Stone told Spaceflight Now.

Officials expect to receive more data on Thursday or Friday indicating whether the issue is a simple bit flip or a more serious software upset.

“We will be sending a command to the spacecraft to transmit down bit by bit so we can look at it and determine which bit has been flipped, and then reset it to its proper state,” Stone said.

Stone said even if the anomaly is a fundamental software error, engineers can develop a software patch to uplink to Voyager 2 that should resolve the problem.

Voyager 2’s distance from Earth could complicate repairs. It takes nearly 13 hours for radio signals to travel each way between ground controllers and the spacecraft.

Controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., uncovered the problem April 22, when science data streaming down to Earth first showed signs of an anomaly.

“The telemetry comes down in a certain format,” Stone said. “For some reason, that format changed, which means that the flight data system computer was no longer formatting properly.”

NASA sent commands to Voyager 2 in late April, ordering the spacecraft to switch to engineering mode. Data on the probe’s health and systems is not affected by the snafu.

“All I can tell you for sure is the engineering mode and the data is coming down just fine,” Stone said. “That tells us the computer is working fine and that certainly gives us some confidence.”

Launched in 1977 on a tour of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, Voyager 2 is about 8.6 billion miles from Earth as it traverses the outer regions of the heliosphere, or the furthest reaches of the sun’s influence.

Voyager 2 and its sistership, Voyager 1, should reach interstellar space within about 10 or 20 years. Both craft have enough propellant and electrical power to operate until at least 2020, according to NASA.

Both spacecraft are now exploring a region known as the heliosheath, where the sun’s solar wind is slowed by pressure from interstellar gas.

Voyager 2 Real-Time Simulation

http://www.dmuller.net/spaceflight/realtime.php?mission=voyager2